Basic Terminology

Counting
ichi: one
ni: two
san: three
shi: four
go: five
roku: six
shichi: seven
hachi: eight
kyu: nine
ju: ten
hyaku: one hundred

General
go: hard
ju: soft
ryu: style
kara: empty
te:  hand
sensei: teacher
ki: spirit, inner power
kiai: shout used to unite inner power and ki
dan: level
jodan: upper level
chudan: middle level
gedan: lower level
hidari: left
migi: right
mawate: turn
rei: bow
yoi: ready
kamae: ready position
hajime: begin
yame: stop
kime:  focus
mokuso: meditation
kiritsu: stand up

Stances
dachi/tachi: stance
kihon dachi: basic stance
heisoku dachi: closed foot stance (feet together)
musubi dachi: formal attention stance (heels together, feet at an angle)
heiko dachi: parallel stance (feet shoulder width apart)
hachiji dachi: natural stance (feet shoulder width apart, toes slightly pointed out)
shiko dachi: straddle leg stance
sanchin dachi: hourglass stance (back toes in line with front heel)
han zenkutsu dachi: half front stance (back knee drop down to front toes)
zenkutsu dachi: front stance (back knee drops down to front heel)
kokutsu dachi: back stance
neko ashi dachi: cat foot stance

Hand Techniques
tsuki: punch or thrust
uchi: strike
nakadaka ken: middle finger knuckle fist
ippon ken: irst finger knuckle fist
empi/hiji: elbow
oi tsuki lunge: punch
gyaku tsuki: reverse punch
ura tsuki: short punch (palm side up)
age tsuki: rising punch
shotei/teisho tsuki: palm heel thrust
seiken tsuki: fore fist strike
nukite tsuki: finger thrust
ko uchi: bent wrist strike
ura ken uchi: back fist strike
shuto uchi: knife hand srike
tettsui uchi: Hammer fist strike
shotei/teisho uchi: palm heel strike
tsukame: grab

Foot Techniques
geri: kick
ashi: foot/leg
sokuto: foot edge
kakato: heel
haisoku: instep
tsumasaki: tip of the toe
hiza: knee
mae geri (kaegi): front snap kick
mae geri (kekomi): front thrust kick
mawashi geri: round house kick
ushiro geri: back thrust kick
yoko geri (keagi): side snap kick
yoko geri (kekomi): side thrust kick
kansetsu geri: -stamping kick, joint kick
hiza geri: knee kick
ashi barai: foot sweep
mae tobi geri: jumping front kick
yoko tobi geri: jumping side thrust kick

Blocking Techniques
uke: block
age uke (jodan): rising block
chudan uke: inside circular block
chudan uchi uke: outside forearm block
gedan barai: downward block
gedan uchi barai: outside downward block (open block)
hiki uke: pulling/grasping block
kake uke: open handed block
shuto uke: knife hand block
shotei uke: palm heel block
ko uke:  wrist block
ura uke: back hand block
uchi uke: inside forarm block
morote uke: augmented block (double handed)
mawashi uke: round house block
tora guchi: double handed open-hand circular block
hari uke: archer block

Practice Fighting
kumite: sparring
ippon kumite: one point sparring where the attacker defends, then counters after the attack
randori: slow and soft free style with emphasis on technique
jiyu kumite: hard and fast controlled free style fighting

Opening Ceremony
Head Student: shugo line up
Head Student: ki o tsuke attention
Head Student: seiza kneel
Head Student: mokuso meditation
Head Student: mokuso yame finish meditation
Head Student: shomen ni, face front
Head Student: rei bow
Head Student: sensei ni face instructor
Head Student: rei bow
Everybody: onegai shimasu “will you please?” – In karate “Please teach me
Head Student: kiritsu stand up

Closing Ceremony
Head Student: shugo line up
Head Student: ki o tsuke attention
Head Student: seiza kneel
Head Student: mokuso meditation
Head Student: mokuso yame finish meditation
Head Student: dojo kun shouted by head student, then by everyone
Head Student: shinjo ni face the shomen
Head Student: rei bow
Head Student: Hanshi ni face the shomen
Head Student: rei bow
Head Student: sensei ni face instructor
Head Student: rei bow
Everybody: arigato gozaimashita “Thank you very much”
Head Student: otagai ni face each other
Head Student: rei bow
Everybody: arigato gozaimashita “Thank you very much”
Head Student: kiritsu stand up

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